- Advisory number:
- Date issued:
- 27 Feb 2022 - (Update to Advisory issued 20 December 2021)
- Issued by:
- Assoc. Professor Deborah Friedman, Deputy Chief Health Officer (Communicable Disease)
- Issued to:
- Childcare providers, parents with children in early childhood education, the Victorian community.
- Parents and carers are urged to keep young children at home if they are sick amid a rapid rise in outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis in Victorian childcare centres.
- Infants or children, as well as staff, who develop vomiting or diarrhoea should not attend childcare, camps or any other group activities until at least 48 hours after their symptoms have stopped. If symptoms are severe or they persist, or you are concerned, see a GP for advice and possible testing.
- Viral gastroenteritis is highly infectious. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, headache and muscle aches, with more severe outcomes in the elderly and very young. Symptoms can take up to three days to develop and usually last between one or two days, sometimes longer.
- Washing hands with soap and water is one of the most effective ways of preventing the spread of infection. Alcohol-based hand sanitisers are not effective against many common viruses that cause gastroenteritis.
- Staff and parents should be vigilant for symptoms of gastroenteritis in children and reinforce basic hygiene measures.
- Cleaning and sanitising are also important infection control measures and facilities should follow relevant Department of Health guidelines.
- Anyone recovering from gastroenteritis should avoid visiting hospitals, childcare centres and aged care facilities to avoid spreading the infection to those most vulnerable. Any person living in a household with someone who has gastroenteritis should refrain from visiting these high-risk facilities until at least 48 hours after the last person in the household has recovered.
What is the issue?
There have been 104 outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis in childcare centres from the beginning of this year and up to 23 February 2022, compared with 63 which is the five year average for the same period. Most of the current outbreaks are suspected or confirmed to be caused by norovirus with person-to-person transmission. Viral gastroenteritis is highly infections and to prevent further spread infants and children who are unwell should not attend childcare, camps or any other recreational group activities until at least 48 hours after their symptoms have stopped.
Who is at risk?
Viral gastroenteritis can affect people of all ages. Those most at risk of complications include the elderly and the very young.
Symptoms and transmission
Symptoms of viral gastroenteritis include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, headache and muscle aches. They can take up to three days to develop and usually last between one or two days, sometimes longer.
The main complication of gastroenteritis is dehydration, but this can be prevented if the fluid lost in vomit and diarrhoea is replaced, ideally with electrolyte solutions or ice blocks (Hydrolyte/Gastrolyte).
Viral gastroenteritis is highly infectious and may spread rapidly. The virus is present in the vomit and faeces of an infected person and can spread either from person-to-person, through contaminated objects and food via unwashed hands. This usually happens in childcare settings when unwashed hands are placed directly in mouths or touch food or drinks, or indirectly – by touching contaminated surfaces such as taps, toilet flush handles, children’s toys and nappies. Airborne droplets may be formed when a person vomits or has diarrhoea. These droplets can also contaminate surfaces with viral particles.
The best defence against the spread of these viruses is to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and running water for at least 20 seconds before and after handling and eating food, after using the toilet, changing nappies, or assisting someone who has vomiting or diarrhoea. Alcohol hand rub, while effective against some viruses (such as coronavirus), is not sufficiently effective for preventing viral gastroenteritis.
Infants or children who develop vomiting or diarrhoea must stay at home until at least 48 hours after their symptoms have stopped, as should childcare staff members and anyone whose work involves handling food or looking after children, the elderly or other vulnerable individuals.
Anyone recovering from gastroenteritis must avoid visiting hospitals, childcare centres and aged care facilities to avoid spreading the infection to those most vulnerable. Any person living in a household with someone who has gastroenteritis should refrain from visiting these high-risk facilities until at least 48 hours after the last person in the household has recovered.
Childcare centres are encouraged to reinforce basic hygiene measures, such as regular hand washing (paying particular attention to hand washing after attending to nappy changes), cleaning all hard surfaces, and providing education to help prevent the spread of infections. Staff and parents should supervise and assist young children to wash hands properly. Staff should also wear gloves and a mask when cleaning up bodily fluids, including vomit, when symptoms commence at the centre. Disinfect surfaces with a freshly made sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solution.
Anyone concerned about their symptoms should consult their doctor for advice.
Reviewed 28 February 2022